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Can Europe Survive Brexit? The EU is still one of the biggest powers in the word with extensive military and trade capability.

Definitely, presence of the UK in the Union provided the EU with significant leverage and power globally.

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Brexit will impact the internal relations between the remaining Member states and also the external relationships with other regional powers. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to analyze how the departure of the UK will impact the EU — will the EU will be weakened and be placed on the brink of gtrade system suisse sa or if Brexit will have a totally different effect — more cooperation and strength.

While taking into account that the EU is a Union of 27 Member States, which have their own national preferences, state-centrist approaches and different defense and security agendasBrexit makes these issues even more significant. The realist and neorealist theories will be helpful to understand the power relations that will take place after Brexit.

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Realist theory provides a state-centric approach and the neorealist theory tends to focus on the military economic, troops, nuclear weapons and trade capabilities networks of preferential trade agreements of states. These attributes will have the most influence to the EU after Brexit. For that reason, the neo realist theory will be more explanatory than any other. Brexit will influence the remaining EU Member states economically and may also influence the formation of new coalitions within the EU.

From the realist perspective, the remaining EU Member states would act in calculated, rational ways to gtrade system suisse sa their national interest. Therefore, the basic axioms of neorealism — the distribution of power, polarity and national interest will help to understand how the rest of the EU may look after Brexit. First, as argued by neorealists, distribution of power within certain state system is one of the main attributes to understand how and why states will interact in their relationship with one another.

Neorealist theories try to explain how the international system works and tries to predict possible global outcomes. Therefore, change of power relations and variations thereof may explain the various patters that may follow. The notion of distribution of power is of particular relevance in the Brexit and the EU debate.

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Most certainly, departure of one of the most powerful and influential members of the EU will cause changes in the distribution of power among the remaining EU powers. Second, the other gtrade system suisse sa of neorealism is polarity. Neorealists often try to explain the distribution of power by comparing and weighing powerful states to the remaining states in the system.

Neorealists distinguish and analyze power relations between three types of polarity — unipolarity, bipolarity and multipolarity.

According to neorealists, unipolarity prevails when a single state in the system is markedly superior and relative to all other states. One of the main questions is whether the EU Member state system will eventually become bipolar with the strongest states in the center, such as France and Germany, or it will become unipolar system with Germany alone taking the lead. Eventually, another significant notion analyzed by neorealists is the national interest. Naturally, realists and neorealists, emphasizing significant power structures, will look to the national interests of states with reference to their capability.

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In this case, it important to take into account that the EU is not a traditional state, but rather a combination of sometimes very different national interests. The EU Member states differ deeply with respect to their national interests and their capability.

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Therefore, in order to ensure their national interests, weaker or less capable states may resort to forming alliances within the EU to off-balance the stronger states, such as Germany and France. On the other hand, neorealist Waltz argued that alliances are ineffective in a state of bipolarity, because major state in any case has enough power to ignore the powers of its allies. Therefore, while applying these concepts of neorealism, it is important to analyze how the power relations will actually evolve after Brexit in the EU — what sort of system may form and how the remaining Member states will try to balance the global powers, such as China, US and Russia.

The UK was also a global foreign policy player who acted as intermediary between the U. Therefore, dvigubų bollinger juostų indikatoriaus atsisiuntimas departure of the UK, there will be new space and role to be filled with new leaders in the Union.

Thus, it may be argued that departure of the UK may increase the already dominant influence of Germany tradeking opciono mokymas France.

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As predicted by Mearsheimer, Germany is posed to become the dominant European state, because it will want to become the regional hegemon. Even before Brexit, with a population of nearly 82 million, Germany is the largest Member state. It represents almost a third of the Eurozone area GDP. In that regard, other weaker Member states, such as the Dutch and the Nordic states have also relied on the UK to advance their interests in the Gtrade system suisse sa.

Thus, with departure of the UK, the middle-sized member states will not have enough power to oppose Germany and France. Therefore, it will be seen if Germany will try to impose its power upon the weaker states, risking further fractures in the Union or, conversely, will use its power enforce the principles of co-operation and consensus, strengthen the Eurozone and EU institutions, which will hold the Union together even stronger. Nuostabus osciliatoriaus strategijos dvejetainis variantas the strength of both Germany and France, departure of the UK may also give effect to formation of bipolar system, or the so-called Franco-German axis.

As indicated by Waltz, bipolar systems are superior to multipolar systems because they are able to provide greater stability and thus greater security. While considering a possible Franco-German axis, it may be argued that Franco-German power in the EU may reduce the number of conflicts and disputes between the remaining Member states.

Franco-German lead may also enable the Union to operate more easily and effectively. On the other hand, if there is no Franco-German alliance formed and Germany would be reluctant to take the lead role in a possible unipolar EU system, then a multipolar system could possibly evolve. Therefore, it can be argued that for both Germany and France and for the Union as a whole, there is a need to either have Germany as a leader or a Franco-German axis for the Union to remain stable and unified in the future.

That, however, considering their weak relative power to that of Franco-German power, smaller Member states may lack capability to do so.

Где, где все это кончится?. Никогда еще Хилвар не видел своего друга таким задумчивым, и ему не хотелось мешать этой погруженности в самого .

Capability and national interests Lesser capability of the weaker Member states and their national security concerns may play as incentive to take into account mutual considerations of security and acknowledge the need to have Franco-German power in respect of threats of other global powers. Security and defense is a shared concern of all smaller and weaker Member states. With departure of the UK, which still is one of the main military actors in European continent with significant intelligence and diplomatic capabilities, the EU will need to collaborate more closely to ensure collective security.

The EU is already weak geopolitically and stands between the dominant hegemons of the 21st century: the U. On the other hand, the UK has always challenged the idea mutual defence policy in the EU. Although different EU Member states may have differences in internal Union policies and different national interests, however, their security and defense interests are mutual.

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Thus, from the realist perspective, the remaining EU member states would need to act in calculated, rational ways to maximize their security and defense interests while working together. In the realist view, as argued by Morgenthau, the most important manifestation of the balance of gtrade system suisse sa is in the relationships between one nation or alliance and another alliance, because alliances are purposed to defend from the strong and this is the typical method to preserve balance.

If all of these initiatives and plans are successful, then the EU, as a whole, may become one of the strongest military powers globally and a substantial arm of the NATO. Conclusions Therefore, considering the issues discussed above, it may be argued that Brexit may, paradoxically, strengthen, but not weaken the EU. On the one hand, departure of the EU will cause substantial power shifts within the EU. Germany, in particular, gtrade system suisse sa its economic power may take on the leadership and drive forward even greater mutuality and cooperation of the remaining EU Member states.

The middle-sized and weaker remaining EU Gtrade system suisse sa states will not have enough power to oppose Germany and France, which would eventually lead to more stability within the Union.

A German-France axis may also help to ensure greater stability and thus greater security. On the other hand, departure of the UK may also have significant benefits for the EU auto prekybos sistemos apžvalgos the context of security and defense.

Finally, it can be argued that Brexit may be the necessary shock for the EU, which will help the remaining Member states to realize the benefits in having an even stronger alliance, with further gtrade system suisse sa and less opposition to change. Bibliography 1. Biscop, Sven. Bretherton, Charlotte, and John Vogler. The European Union as a global actor. Psychology Press, Bulmer, Simon, and William E. Of economic strength and political constraints.

Buzan, Barry, et al. The logic of anarchy: neorealism to structural realism.

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Columbia University Press, Carr, Edward Hallett. Springer, Merkel and Macron show unity ahead of all-important EU summit. Deutsch, Karl W. David Singer. Doyle, Michael W.

Dueck, Colin. Dunn, Jonathan. National Defense University Press, Elman, Colin, and John A. Vasquez, eds.

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Prentice Hall, Friman, H. Politics of Leverage in International Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Ginsberg, Roy H. The Nordic countries and the European security and defence policy. Oxford University Press, Herz, John H. International relations and the European Union. Hyde-Price, Adrian. Introduction to international relations: theories and approaches.

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Josef Janning, Almut Möller. Untapped potential: How new alliances can strengthen the EU. Policy Brief.


European Council On Foreign Relations, ecfr. Kluth, Michael Friederich, and Jess Pilegaard. Explaining aggregate EU naval military capability changes in a neo-realist perspective. Koops, Joachim Alexander. Layne, Christopher. Liska, George. Nations in Alliance: The Limits of Interdependance. Johns Hopkins University Press, Manners, Ian. Marsh, Steve, and John Baylis.

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Mearsheimer, John J. The tragedy of great power politics. Morgenthau, Hans Joachim. Politics among nations.

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New York: Knopf, Morris, Justin. Nexon, Daniel H. Oliver, Tim.